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Instruments

In this category we introduce musical instruments in our shop. We write about our favourite instruments and we present the most exciting new instruments in our shop here.
  • How the jaw harp became a commodity in Great Britain and Ireland: Michael Wright’s book about the jaw harp

    “The Scottish and Irish integrated the jaw harp into their music culture, the English did not,” writes Michael Wright in his book about jaw harps in Great Britain and Ireland, which was published in 2015. Even though the English didn’t play the jaw harp that very often, since the 18th century at the latest England was one of the largest jaw harp manufacturers and exporters. In his detailed book about the British and the Irish “jews-harp” the jaw harp expert Michael Wright contributes important information about the economic and cultural history of the widespread instrument. On what trade routes did the jaw harp get to England and who bought it? Why became Birmingham the center of jaw harp manufacturing? Who built the instruments? Why is the jaw harp in English called jews-harp? The book is recommended for jaw harp lovers and beginners, but also for experts. It provides the basics of the instrument, uncovers several correlations in the European history of the jaw harp and invites to look into the numerous references from archives about the culture of the instrument and its depiction in the fine arts, architecture and press.

    Michael Wright book The Jews-Harp in Britain and Ireland

    Although music is not the first priority in Michael Wright’s “The Jews-Harp in Britain and Ireland“ it is possible to get an idea of the music from the British and Irish jaw harp. Wright’s book contains recordings in a supplementary CD, which all root back to the Wright family – who are the strongest protagonists in fostering jaw harp culture over the last 50 years. The recordings are from 2008 to 2015. Some of them are from the legendary John Wright, Michael’s brother. Particularly the last piece on the CD (no. 17) is impressive: Banish Misfortune. It’s the first piece that John Wright taught his brothers in 1968. The three-tone played jig from Ireland unfolds a broad tapestry of sound and covers the whole range of instruments. It’s the example for polyphonic jaw harp playing per se.

    The book comes in 3 parts with respective 3 chapters. All basics regarding origin, name, and already published literature is summarized in the first part. The jews-harp as an economic commodity with traders, jaw harp smiths, and oversea buyers are outlined in the second part of the book. Part 3 is a collection of numerous jaw harp sources and references in arts and culture of several eras.

    Part 1: Basics

    How is a jaw harp sound formed, what playing techniques have an impact on the sound, how is the instrument defined in old encyclopedias and what literature does already exist? The first chapter named “Theorists” explains those basics. Right at the beginning Wright is posing a question, which will be discussed from different angles: does the jaw harp belong to “pluck idiophones” – as defined by musicologists Hornbostel and Sachs in their classification – or is the jaw harp an aerophone – as suggested by the jaw harp expert Frederic Crane – since the sounds are created by air swirls and the jaw harp material itself does not produce the sound.

    In the second chapter the next discourse starts. What is the origin of the jaw harp? Since experts and scientist haven’t agreed on a common theory yet, Michael Wright decided to collect what archaeological findings are able to prove. He discusses the function of the instruments in history. While the jaw harp in Siberia has had a spiritual meaning until today Wright proves that in the territory of today’s Great Britain and Ireland it was an affordable instruments for relatively poor people. Wright comprehensively analyses the archaeological finds and insights. He mainly refers to the research of the archaeologist Gjermund Kolltveit. They prove that in the 15th century the jaw harp was a commodity for the mass market. This conclusion is discussed in detail in the second part of the book.

    In the third chapter, a discourse with importance for the English-speaking area is being discussed. It features the origin and use of the term jews-harp. Wright researched more than 3,000 newspapers, journals, trading papers and dictionaries to find out, in what times how often the word was used. He portrays the history of the word jews-harp with the support of those references . He demonstrates that different terms circulated such as Gewgaw, Juice Harp or Jewes Harp. Wright agrees to the thesis that a lot of those words may have originated based on misunderstandings, e.g. words were written down as heard. Yet one can only speculate – Wright points out that there have been many attempts to prove how jews-harp became the common name of the instrument. Some arguments were confusing, others just ridiculous.

    A very detailed overview is outlined in the section named “The Jewish Connection”. It helps the reader to understand why the term jews-harp today is being critically perceived and partially being avoided. Since the instrument has no historical connection to Jewish culture and the term has been used in anti-Semitic or at least pejorative contexts as early as the 19th century, some jaw harp fans in the English-speaking community more and more have come to use “mouth harp” or “jaw harp”. If due to popularity one sticks to the term “jews-harp”, then, as Wright suggests, the word should be written without apostrophe and thereby create a proper name that does not allow the association to “harp of the jews”. That’s why in his book Wright continuously uses the term jews-harp without apostrophe and with hyphen.

    Part 2: Economic commodity

    The second part of the book is named “Commercial Exploitation”. Why did the jaw harp become already popular in the 13th century? Wright presents sources that prove a very early import of jaw harps in large quantities from the Netherlands to England. “There is no proof that back then the jaw harp had some ritual and social status. Furthermore. It didn’t have any particularly high financial value either. Nevertheless it was established that since the 13th century the instrument was shipped into the country in considerable numbers.” If one follows the trail of Michael Wright’s research, this commercial flow, which is proven by numerous documents, is connected to the economic upturn in the 12th and 13th century that is named by historians as the “Commercial Revolution”. The jaw harp became an import item in England. Its cheap price appears to be an indicator that people with a humble background were able to afford such instrument. The question where in Europe the jaw harps were produced remains unanswered as indication about the production site of larger quantities prior the 17th century is yet missing. So far it’s only known that many items were transported by ships from ports of the Northern and Baltic Sea into the country.

    The making of jaw harps in the big production centers of Boccorio in Italy and Molln in Austria can only be traced back to the early 17th century. In Great Britain, too, the production started about at the same time. England had its first own “trump-maker” since the 17th In the late 17th century the families in the West Midlands, in the wider Birmingham region, started producing jaw harps. Michael Wright describes in his book how Birmingham became one of the biggest jaw harp production centers in Europe. The tiny instrument as a mass commodity: in chapter 5 that features the jaw harp smiths in Great Britain and Ireland Wright demonstrates that as early as from the 19th century on jaw harps were made in different qualities, meaning there was a certain price range for the instruments. Still, one could buy jaw harps for only a few pennies, but more and more higher-priced items were sold as well. As Wright shows, some families passed down the heritage of the craftsmanship over many generations. Chapter 6 depicts how their jaw harps were shipped in vast amounts to North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Many instruments remained in Scotland and Ireland. There, the jews-harp was a popular instrument among a lot of people.

    Part 3: Jaw Harp References

    The third part of the book is the work of a collector. In chapter 7 and 8, Michael Wright provides references of historical and present representations of the jaw harp in art, architecture and media. These chapters are meant for the reader to browse, explore and be amazed. The readers will find caricatures, illustrations, paintings, and poems. An entertaining read that is fun and emphasizes the humoristic, playful side of the jaw harp. The last chapter is dedicated to British and Irish jaw harp players. The reminiscences of past jaw harp players that were convicted with the death penalty as thieves and murderers is curious. Particularly memorable is the story of Geillis Duncan who even played for the king with her jaw harp until she was executed in 1590 due to allegations of practising witchcraft.

    Reading all those stories, one wishes to be able to hear some historical jews-harp moments with one’s own ears. As far as it is known, the oldest jaw harp recording roots back to the year 1933. It was played in the song “I took my harp to a Party”. Furthermore, at the end Michael Wright refers to some jaw harp recordings. A collection of popular music songs that use the jews-harp is covered as well. The part about the new generation of jaw harp players, the role of the jaw harp in the internet and the outlook to the future are touched rather fragmentary.

    The book delivers many impulses. The strongest impression makes the depiction of the jaw harp in Great Britain and Ireland as a good and economic commodity. Wright demonstrates in a vivid manner and based on numerous proof how the instruments developed from an import good in the 13th century to an export good in the England of the 18th century. Unfortunately, it cannot precisely established what kind of people in the 13th century used the jews-harp on what occasions. Here, source material is missing. Again, we need to assume that at that time the jaw harp was given a low cultural status. Wright quotes the English author Samuel Pegge who wrote in 1778 that this instrument is nothing more than a “boy’s toy”, which would neither go along well with a voice nor with a music instrument. Content-wise, the book has a stronger focus on Great Britain and Ireland. The book does not deal with the music itself, i.e. the repertoire for English and Irish jaw harp. It was published in English by Ashgate. For a scientific paper, unfortunately “The jews-harp in Britain und Ireland” is with 80 Euro much more expansive than the average book.

  • The Kalimbas from the workshop of Peter Hokema

    In Germany kalimbas are produced at the workshop of Peter Hokema. Within this family business he has been making these instruments with excellent quality since 1985. Kalimbas by Hokema are made in a pentatonic tuning. One can play very well on these instruments without any musical educational background, because all of the keys match each other. “Wrong keys” are practically impossible.

    Peter Hokema even developed three different kinds of kalimbas. There is the sansula with the lamellas attached to a hide which is stretched over a wooden frame. The “pocket kalimbas” are small models with the lamellas attached to a solid wood block. And the classical kalimba consists of a resonating body with a sound hole.

    The Sansula

    Sansulas are musical instruments which Peter Hokema developed in 2001 as an enhancement of the kalimba or mbira. The sound block of those instruments to which the tines are attached to (as is the case with the kalimba) is mounted to a membrane stretched by a wooden ring. The specialty is that the tones sound for a long time and produce a beautiful vibrato effect when for example the sansula is put onto one’s lap and one side is lifted and dropped. Sansulas evolve a warm, smooth, and voluminous sound.

    Hokema Sansula Deluxe Kalimba

    For their sound which reminds of a music box, and for the calming vibrations which emanate from these instruments, parents for example like to use the sansulas to play a lullaby for their children. This is primarily possible because the keys match each other. Therefore one can always play beautiful sounds and melodies without any musical expertise.

    The “Sansula Basic” is covered by a synthetic drumhead and available in various tunings. The “Sansula Renaissance” is more resilient. It is covered by a drumhead of the company REMO. This membrane is not only very solid and has a nice sound, but is also less vulnerable to variations of humidity. The “Sansula Deluxe” is very robust and made with a natural membrane of goatskin. This membrane can be stretched with a clamping jig. You can let kids play these instruments without worrying.

    The Kalimba

    We suggest the robust made pocket kalimbas for traveling and for kalimba beginners. The smallest kalimba is palm-sized and has five keys. The ones which are a bit bigger have seven or nine lamellas/keys. The tines of the kalimbas are attached to a solid wood block made of mahogany or American cherrywood. The sound gets amplified and more clearly when the instrument is put on a table or another hollow body, e.g. a cupboard or a drum.

    Hokema Kalimba Series

    The classical kalimba model by Hokema has nine tines/keys. The lamellas are attached to a resonating body made of wood with sound holes on the front and back side. The two little holes on the back side can be included into the playing: by covering or opening the sound holes with the moving forefingers the sound gets a special vibration, similar to a vibrato. This classical kalimba is made with high quality and neatly tuned in pentatonic A minor. The resonating body is made of solid American cherrywood which has been treated with vegetable oil. These instruments evolve an excellent sound which is similar to the sound of the original African kalimba and mbira.

  • From the toy section to the stage: How the kalimba became famous in the US and Europe

    Looking at the European museum catalogue for musical instruments MIMO (Musical Instrument Museums Online), one can find almost 170 musical instruments under the keyword “lamellaphones in Africa”. Thereby one is often very different from another one. All instruments belong to one category for which we (Non-Africans) commonly use the generic term “kalimba”. Who developed a new group of instruments out of this variety and made it possible to order them home just by mouse click? – Musical instruments originally played in African countries, but now successfully adapted to the Western scale?

     

    MIMO

    One thousand and one kalimbas

    Kalimbas from 13 different African countries in total appear in the MIMO catalogue: Angola, Malawi, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Nigeria, Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Senegal, and Gabon. But the list of those countries in which variations of the “kalimbas” are played, is still not complete. These instruments also exist in Uganda, Zambia, and Zaire. To those searching for more evidences of original kalimbas we suggest to have a look into the photographic archives of the International Library of African Music (ILAM). There are almost 100 photos under the keyword “mbira”, taken at the original places of these intruments. Very often the diverse regional names are registered: Mbira, Sansa or Zanza, Likembe, Kadongo, Nsansi, Malimba, Ulimba, Ringa, Timbrh, Lulimba, Ulimba, Kakolondondo or Madaku.

    Even these regional terms, the usage of which rather depends on the people’s local languages than on the borders of a nation state, firstly provide only guidance to the kind of instrument. Here is an example: There are several variations or types of the mbira among the Shona in Zimbabwe. Among others there is the Mbira Dza Vadzimu with 22 to 28 metal tines which is played at religious ceremonies and weddings. Furthermore there are the Mbira Njari and the Mbira Matepe. Since the 1960ies the Mbira Nyunga Nyunga as played by Abraham Dumisani Maraire has also been known.

    Ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik describes the wide-spread “kalimba” type Likembe: These instruments are said to have been spread by commercial travelers and migrant workers from Central African areas (Zaire) on their way to Angola, Zambia, Uganda, and Tanzania. They are characterized by their box-shaped resonating body which is cut out on the upper part of the back side. This recess is necessary to fix the tines by means of an iron clamp through holes and wire on the back side. There are innumerable versions of this kalimba type.

    Kalimbas at the toy section

    The development of a kalimba which became attractive for usage in Europe and North America has been awarded to ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey. Tracey lived on his brother’s tobacco farm in present-day Zimbabwe since 1921, and for decades he traveled through several countries in Southern and Central Africa. Right from the start this young man from Devonshire in England was interested in the language and culture of the local population, the Shona. Tracey appreciated the music of the Shona very much and treated it as cultural property which needed to be kept and recorded. The material which he gathered during his trips as a collector has been preserved and digitalized until today. Tracey studied the various kalimba types in Africa in detail for several years and collected all kinds of material about them. So he knew the different tunings and designs and finally began to make single instruments himself.

    Tracey experimented with various wood species and sizes. In 1954 he founded the company “African Musical Instruments” (AMI) and marketed the first kalimbas in Europe and the US. But before the first standardized musical instrument for the European and US American market was ready, they made about 100 prototypes. The first 10.000 kalimbas ended up in the department stores’ toy sections of all places in the US, because they were bought and sold by a toy company. This is an indication of the dubiety about who would at all be interested in these instruments.

    Hugh Tracey Kalimba (AMI) Hugh Tracey Kalimba (AMI)

    The kalimba becomes pop

    It was a test of patience to make the kalimba as a musical instrument known in Europe and the US. Hugh Tracey contributed to its diffusion on his lecture tours outside of Africa. The music revue “Wait a Minim” of his sons Andrew and Paul toured through Europe, Africa and North America for six years. In an interview with Mark Holdaway (kalimbamagic.com) Andrew Tracey remembers how difficult it was to draw people’s interest in the kalimba. It took an awful long time for people in England to take to something new. Primarily it had been Andrew Tracey’s concern with “Wait a Minim” to generally make African music known. There had been only a few songs with kalimba in this show. But nonetheless the interest in this instrument got to a stage where a British piano manufacturer took notice of the kalimba and took over the marketing of it in Great Britain.

    In retrospect there was a first boom for the kalimba in the 1960ies. Maurice White, member of the band Earth, Wind, and Fire, played the kalimba and made it known to a wider public. The Hugh Tracey Kalimbas became established as hybrid musical instruments which combined elements from African musical cultures with current musical standards from Europe or the US: The kalimbas made for the Western market were tuned diatonically. In the music of Thomas Mapfumo the mbira has been and still is a permanent feature. When he gained attention worldwide in the 1980ies, the mbira or kalimba was brought again into public focus:

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